Amoral Academia


Does a Transatlantic Strategy Exist?
with Professor Christopher Coker


Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathanals Basis realistischer Thesen des 20.Jahrhunderts

in den Internationalen Beziehungen

von Daniel Demmel


The Father of Us All

by Victor Davis Hanson


Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace

by Christopher Layne


Political Thought and International Relations: Variations on a Realist Theme

by Duncan Bell


War of Necessity, War of Choice – A Memoir of Two Iraq Wars

by Richard N. Haass


America and the World: Conversations on the Future of American Foreign Policy

Zbigniew Brzezinski and Brent Scowcroft with David Ignatius


Power Rules: How Common Sense Can Rescue American Foreign Policy

by Leslie H. Gelb


Power and Morality

Christian Hacke on the Legacy of Hans J. Morgenthau


Varieties of Naïveté

by Laurie Calhoun


Westphalian Diplomacy and the Challenge of Contending Universalisms

In framing the emergence of the modern international system from within the context of the Protestant Reformation and the Treaty of Westphalia, this paper examines how intra-Christian agreements on the public role of religion and principles of sovereignty are constituted and affirmed through practices of statecraft and diplomacy. In particular, this paper identifies distinctive transformations in practices of diplomacy accompanying European encounters with countries with different or competing claims of universal truth and social order. Challenges to Westphalian diplomatic practices have occurred following encounters with religious ‘others’ (with the inclusion of Russia as an Orthodox country into the family of Europe, and later the inclusion of Turkey) as well as with universalist ideologies (with the French Revolution and later, the Soviet Revolution). Today perceived challenges to Westphalian conceptions of order by a religiously defined ‘other’ (Islamic fundamentalism) are significantly transforming the role and importance of public diplomacy. The paper will conclude by analyzing the implications of competing claims for universal order grounded in different religious values for the conduct of diplomacy, and what this may suggest in terms of transformations taking place in the larger international system.

Kunkle, Lynn. “Westphalian Diplomacy and the Challenge of Contending Universalisms” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004




  1. Miguel NS said,

    Does COIN undermine CT ?

  2. Miguel NS said,

    Prince Hans-Adam II responds to a viewer question regarding Liechtenstein’s relationship with Germany,

  3. rodsjournal said,

    Re: the Leslie Gelb interview — The (US) ‘left’ is equated with advocating the ‘concept of soft power’? Laughable. Not only do those like Gelb have the conventional and misinformed understanding of what that kind of ‘left’ is in the US (i.e. it’s hardly ‘left’), what isn’t acknowledged is that the same broad range of elites, though not unitary, still rule – whether they call themselves ‘Democrat’ or ‘Republican’, conservative or libertarian, ‘right’ or ‘left’, liberal interventionist or realist – so the US foreign policy community isn’t as pluralistic as Gelb implies.

    Re: the ‘Westphalian Diplomacy and the Challenge of Contending Universalisms’ paper — it’s the ‘Peace’ (not ‘Treaty’) of Westphalia (!).

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